Summary of Study ST000203

This data is available at the NIH Common Fund's National Metabolomics Data Repository (NMDR) website, the Metabolomics Workbench,, where it has been assigned Project ID PR000171. The data can be accessed directly via it's Project DOI: 10.21228/M8HG6N This work is supported by NIH grant, U2C- DK119886.


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Study IDST000203
Study TitleGermfree vs Conventional Swiss webster mice Studies
Study TypeShort-chain fatty acid analysis
Study SummaryThe intestinal tract is inhabited by a large and diverse community of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiota. While the gut microbiota provides important benefits to its host, especially in metabolism and immune development, disturbance of the microbiota–host relationship is associated with numerous chronic inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and the group of obesity-associated diseases collectively referred to as metabolic syndrome. A primary means by which the intestine is protected from its microbiota is via multi-layered mucus structures that cover the intestinal surface, thereby allowing the vast majority of gut bacteria to be kept at a safe distance from epithelial cells that line the intestine1. Thus, agents that disrupt mucus–bacterial interactions might have the potential to promote diseases associated with gut inflammation. Consequently, it has been hypothesized that emulsifiers, detergent-like molecules that are a ubiquitous component of processed foods and that can increase bacterial translocation across epithelia in vitro2, might be promoting the increase in inflammatory bowel disease observed since the mid-twentieth century3. Here we report that, in mice, relatively low concentrations of two commonly used emulsifiers, namely carboxymethylcellulose and polysorbate-80, induced low-grade inflammation and obesity/metabolic syndrome in wild-type hosts and promoted robust colitis in mice predisposed to this disorder. Emulsifier-induced metabolic syndrome was associated with microbiota encroachment, altered species composition and increased pro-inflammatory potential. Use of germ-free mice and faecal transplants indicated that such changes in microbiota were necessary and sufficient for both low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome. These results support the emerging concept that perturbed host–microbiota interactions resulting in low-grade inflammation can promote adiposity and its associated metabolic effects. Moreover, they suggest that the broad use of emulsifying agents might be contributing to an increased societal incidence of obesity/metabolic syndrome and other chronic inflammatory diseases. In Study Design factor “Treatment” CMC stands for carboxymethylcellulose and P80 for polysorbate-80 Research is published:
University of Michigan
DepartmentBiomedical Research Core Facilities
LaboratoryMetabolomics core
Last NameKachman
First NameMaureen
Address6300 Brehm Tower, 1000 Wall Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48105-5714
Submit Date2015-06-11
Num Groups6
Total Subjects66
Raw Data AvailableYes
Raw Data File Type(s)d
Uploaded File Size2.3 M
Analysis Type DetailGC-MS
Release Date2015-12-28
Release Version1
Maureen Kachman Maureen Kachman application/zip

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Subject type: Animal; Subject species: Mus musculus (Factor headings shown in green)

mb_sample_id local_sample_id treatment Germfree versus conventional
SA010129S00012779CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010130S00012780CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010131S00012778CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010132S00012813CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010133S00012814CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010134S00012781CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010135S00012782CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010136S00012812CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010137S00012811CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010138S00012785CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010139S00012784CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010140S00012783CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010141S00012816CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010142S00012815CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010143S00012817CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010144S00012818CMC Conventionaly raised animal
SA010145S00012765CMC Germfree animal
SA010146S00012764CMC Germfree animal
SA010147S00012799CMC Germfree animal
SA010148S00012798CMC Germfree animal
SA010149S00012800CMC Germfree animal
SA010150S00012766CMC Germfree animal
SA010151S00012767CMC Germfree animal
SA010152S00012797CMC Germfree animal
SA010153S00012820P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010154S00012819P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010155S00012825P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010156S00012824P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010157S00012822P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010158S00012821P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010159S00012823P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010160S00012792P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010161S00012788P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010162S00012791P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010163S00012789P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010164S00012787P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010165S00012786P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010166S00012790P80 Conventionaly raised animal
SA010167S00012804P80 Germfree animal
SA010168S00012805P80 Germfree animal
SA010169S00012772P80 Germfree animal
SA010170S00012803P80 Germfree animal
SA010171S00012802P80 Germfree animal
SA010172S00012768P80 Germfree animal
SA010173S00012769P80 Germfree animal
SA010174S00012770P80 Germfree animal
SA010175S00012771P80 Germfree animal
SA010176S00012801P80 Germfree animal
SA010177S00012776Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010178S00012773Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010179S00012777Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010180S00012774Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010181S00012775Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010182S00012808Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010183S00012810Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010184S00012806Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010185S00012807Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010186S00012809Water Conventionaly raised animal
SA010187S00012763Water Germfree animal
SA010188S00012762Water Germfree animal
SA010189S00012793Water Germfree animal
SA010190S00012761Water Germfree animal
SA010191S00012796Water Germfree animal
SA010192S00012760Water Germfree animal
SA010193S00012795Water Germfree animal
SA010194S00012794Water Germfree animal
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