Summary of study ST001659

This data is available at the NIH Common Fund's National Metabolomics Data Repository (NMDR) website, the Metabolomics Workbench,, where it has been assigned Project ID PR001064. The data can be accessed directly via it's Project DOI: 10.21228/M85H6W This work is supported by NIH grant, U2C- DK119886.


This study contains a large results data set and is not available in the mwTab file. It is only available for download via FTP as data file(s) here.

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Study IDST001659
Study TitleIdentify putative volatile biomarkers of Coccidioides spp. grown in vitro
Study TypeUntargeted metabolomics
Study SummaryValley fever (coccidioidomycosis) is an endemic fungal pneumonia of the North and South American deserts. The causative agents of Valley fever are the dimorphic fungi Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which grow as mycelia in the environment and spherules within the lungs of vulnerable hosts. The current diagnostics for Valley fever are severely lacking due to poor sensitivity and invasiveness, contributing to a 23-day median time-to-diagnosis, and therefore new diagnostic tools are needed. We are working toward the development of a breath-based diagnostic for coccidioidomycosis, and in this initial study we characterized the volatile metabolomes (or volatilomes) of in vitro cultures of Coccidioides. Using solid-phase microextraction and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC–TOFMS), we characterized the VOCs produced by six strains of each species during mycelial or spherule growth. We detected a total of 353 VOCs that were at least two-fold more abundant in a Coccidioides culture versus medium controls and found the volatile metabolome of Coccidioides is more dependent on growth phase (spherule versus mycelia) than on the species. The volatile profiles of C. immitis and C. posadasii have strong similarities, indicating that a single suite of Valley fever breath biomarkers can be developed to detect both species.
Arizona State University
DepartmentSchool of Life Sciences
LaboratoryBean Laboratory
Last NameBean
First NameHeather
AddressPO Box 874501 Tempe, AZ 85287
Submit Date2021-01-22
PublicationsLifecycle dominates the volatilome character of the dimorphic fungus Coccidioides spp Emily A. Higgins Keppler, Heather L. Mead, Bridget M. Barker, Heather D. Bean bioRxiv 2021.01.15.426916; doi:
Raw Data AvailableYes
Raw Data File Type(s).smp
Analysis Type DetailGC-MS
Release Date2021-03-15
Release Version1
Heather Bean Heather Bean application/zip

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Project ID:PR001064
Project DOI:doi: 10.21228/M85H6W
Project Title:Volatile Biomarkers for a Valley Fever Breath Test
Project Type:GCxGC-TOFMS metabolomics
Project Summary:Coccidioidomycosis, or valley fever, is prevalent in AZ, with more than 12,000 new human infections diagnosed every year. In highly endemic areas, e.g., Phoenix and Tucson, up to 30% of community-acquired pneumonia may be caused by Valley fever, and cases are on the rise. The current diagnostics for Valley fever are severely lacking due to invasiveness (biopsy) and poor sensitivity (serology), strongly contributing to an unacceptable 23-day median time-to-diagnosis. There is a critical need for sensitive and non-invasive diagnostics for identifying Valley fever lung infections. Our long-term goal is to substantially shorten the time-to-diagnosis for Valley fever through the development of sensitive and specific breath-based diagnostics for coccidioidomycosis lung infections. The overall objective of this application is to identify and validate putative volatile biomarkers of Coccidioides infections via metabolomics analyses of in vitro cultures, mouse model lung infections, and lung specimens from humans with Valley fever. At the completion of the proposed study, we expect to have identified and validated a panel of 10-15 volatile biomarkers for the sensitive and specific detection of valley fever in lung specimens.
Institute:Arizona State University
Department:School of Life Sciences
Laboratory:Bean Laboratory
Last Name:Bean
First Name:Heather
Address:PO Box 874501, Tempe, AZ, 85287, USA
Funding Source:Arizona Biomedical Research Centre New Investigator Award to HDB