Summary of study ST001521

This data is available at the NIH Common Fund's National Metabolomics Data Repository (NMDR) website, the Metabolomics Workbench,, where it has been assigned Project ID PR001024. The data can be accessed directly via it's Project DOI: 10.21228/M8B984 This work is supported by NIH grant, U2C- DK119886.


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Study IDST001521
Study TitlePlasma metabolites of known identity profiled using hybrid nontargeted methods (part-III)
Study SummaryWe determined the effect of diet on the composition and metabolic function of human gut microbiome using a controlled feeding experiment with three divergent diets (vegan, omnivore, and an exclusive enteral nutrition diet (EEN) devoid of dietary fiber) in the Food And Resulting Microbial Metabolites (FARMM) study. The study included an antibiotic and polyethylene glycol (Abx/PEG) intervention to dynamically assess the effect of diet on the reconstitution of the gut microbiota and its associated fecal and plasma metabolome. Samples from thirty healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60, 10 mper diet group were analyzed. Self-reported vegans were required to have followed a vegan diet for a minimum of 6 months prior to enrollment. Key exclusion criteria included inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, or other chronic intestinal disorders; prior bowel resection surgery other than appendectomy; baseline bowel frequency less than every 2 days or greater than 3 times daily; creatinine concentration greater than the upper limit of normal; diabetes mellitus; currently smoking; body mass index (BMI) <18.5 or >35; and use of antibiotics and probiotics in the prior 6 months. The 10 vegans continued to follow their usual diet as outpatients. All participants completed the Diet History Questionnaire II (DHQ II), a food frequency questionnaire developed by the Risk Factor Monitoring and Methods Branch of the National Cancer Institute. The vegan participants also completed three 24 hour diet recalls with a dietitian in the week prior to starting antibiotics. We randomly assigned the 20 omnivores to receive an omnivore diet or EEN (Modulen® IBD) while residing in an inpatient research unit. The macronutrient composition of Modulen® is protein 36g, fat 47g, and carbohydrate 110g per 1000 Kcal. The two omnivore diets were engineered to have a similar composition to EEN. All the subjects consumed the menu A on day 11 and menu B on days 4 and 14. Diets for omnivores were constructed to provide the expected total calories required per day for the participant to maintain their current weight and were adjusted if there was weight gain or loss of more than 2.5 pounds. On days 6, 7, and 8, inpatients participants received vancomycin 500mg orally every 6 hours and neomycin 1000mg orally every 6 hours. On day 7, participants consumed 4L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) based bowel purgative (GoLytely®). Participants in the omnivore and EEN arms left the inpatient research unit only under the direct supervision of a research staff member. The vegan outpatients reported to the hospital twice on days 6,7 and 8 to receive antibiotics and to consume PEG on day 7. The first stool sample of each day of the inpatient groups was collected, aliquoted and frozen immediately at -80oC. Blood was collected on days 1, 5, 9, 12 and 15 from which plasma aliquots were immediately isolated and frozen at -80oC. The outpatient participants following the vegan diet also had blood collected on days 1, 5, 9, 12, and 15 from which plasma aliquots were immediately isolated and frozen at -80oC. Among these participants, the first stool of the day was collected at home daily and kept on ice packs until it was brought to the research unit where it could be aliquoted and frozen. Samples from vegans were received for aliquoting within 24 hours and on average within 4 hours (Wu et al., 2010). Day 0 stool was not collected from vegans since their diet did not change. The aliquoted amounts for all samples ranged from 500 mg to 1 g. The aliquots were taken from different areas of the sample. Remaining sample was then collected into one residual 50 ml conical tube with a tongue depressor. Any remaining stool was discarded. The University of Pennsylvania Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved the research protocol.
Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Last NameClish
First NameClary
Address415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA
Submit Date2020-11-05
Num Groups3
Total Subjects30
Num Males20
Num Females10
Study Commentsplasma samples collected at baseline and 3-4 timepoints
Raw Data AvailableYes
Raw Data File Type(s).raw
Analysis Type DetailLC-MS
Release Date2021-04-01
Release Version1
Clary Clish Clary Clish application/zip

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Project ID:PR001024
Project DOI:doi: 10.21228/M8B984
Project Title:Role of Diet in the Reconstitution of the Human Gut Microbiome and its Metabolome
Project Type:Observational study
Project Summary:We studied the impact of three divergent diets, vegan, omnivore, and a synthetic enteral nutrition (EEN) diet lacking fiber, on the human gut microbiome and its metabolome in a longitudinal analysis that included a microbiota depletion intervention. Hybrid nontargeted LC-MS methods were used to profile stool and plasma metabolites.
Institute:Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard
Last Name:Clish
First Name:Clary
Address:415 Main Street, Cambridge, MA, 02142, USA
Funding Source:Crohn’s & Colitis Foundation, P30 DK 050306, PennCHOP Microbiome Program, and the Penn Center for Nutritional Science and Medicine
Contributors:Ceylan Tanes, Kyle Bittinger, Yuan Gao, Elliot S. Friedman, Lisa Nessel, Unmesha Roy Paladhi, Lillian Chau, Erika Panfen, Michael A. Fischbach, Jonathan Braun, Ramnik J. Xavier, Clary B. Clish, Hongzhe Li, Frederic D. Bushman, James D. Lewis, Gary D. Wu